Your power system stability is our priority.

KIPO deliver electrical protection services to safeguard your power supply for your business critical operations, which is essential in the event of an electrical fault.

Our experienced team provide solutions to overcome and repair electrical discrimination problems, helping you achieve electrical discrimination and power systems discrimination for critical facilities and electrical systems.

Contact us to see how our electrical protection services will improve your power system quality, resilience and safety.



Discrimination Studies

A Discrimination study is a way of preventing unwanted power loss and is the equivalent to a Doctors health check on your electrical services to achieve  electrical discrimination.  The objective of the study is to ensure safety and continuity of power to the remaining electrical systems.

Power systems discrimination prevents unwanted breaker tripping when a fault happens within an electrical system. This means that the consequences of a breaker relay tripping are kept to a minimum and only the nearest breaker or relay trips a circuit during a fault.  

The services we provide range from a list of settings only, through to an in-depth professional report for both low voltage and medium voltage networks.

We map time current curves to demonstrate grading (a gap in time and current) between different breakers and relays. Find out more here.

Short Circuit Studies

Short Circuit studies and their current charts demonstrate that the switchgear has been sized correctly and that disconnection times are achieved to ensure safety of the installations.  

These studies are commonly required when designing Medium Voltage networks. The associated British Standard is BS EN 60909: 2016 for Short Circuit Calculations.

While a Short circuit and Earth fault current is commonly measured for smaller circuits, the upstream distribution systems will require a more in-depth consideration.  

Our services relate to undertaking a short circuit study, before a discrimination study to establish the correct settings. We provide in-depth professional reports for both low voltage and medium voltage networks. Find our more here.


EMC and Harmonics

The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards (IEC EN 61000) require a strategic study to ensure the correct part of the standard is adopted to the design or installation.

The EMC topic covers, harmonic calculations, power quality and harmonic survey, physical separation of containment with different voltages studies and surge immunity studies.  

KIPO are regularly commissioned to establish a brief to comply with a very complex set of standards. Find out more here. 


EMF Survey and Reports

The human body is not designed to tolerate long term exposure to high levels of Electromagnetic Field (EMF). EMF surveys and reports are used to detect magnetic fields in areas of work, or hotels and places considered to be safe havens from surrounding energy fields.

We provide EMF surveys and reports for areas near substations, transformers, high voltage aging cables, undersized equipment and mobile phone masts. 

Our reports comply with the World Health Organization guidelines for EMF exposures from the introduction of new technologies; and identify the areas which are unsafe zones that require an in-depth survey.  Find our more here.


Arc Flash Study

An Arc flash study is performed to identify the extent of the specific Arc flash hazard at a given item of switchgear within your facility, identifying the extent of the hazard. The object of such a study is to minimise or mitigate the hazard when servicing the switchgear.  

Consequently, an Arc flash hazard is identified in terms of restrictive boundary restricting access and close approach to the switchgear. PPE must be worn at the boundary. The calculations are undertaken in accordance with IEEE 1584 and NFPA 70E:2018.  Find our more here.

Loadflow Calculations

Power flow or Load flow studies are used to understand the flow of electric power in a complex and interconnecting electrical distribution scheme, where different switching arrangement can exist.  

For example, when a circuit breaker trips, the load can be switched onto a different area of the electrical installation, bypassing the fault.

Our objective is to calculate the loadflow relative to the size of the supporting electrical distribution in the event of an emergency. We examine the data given to propose solutions to problems such as overload and the alternative flow of load.


Earthing & EPR Survey

An earthing potential rise survey ensures that earthing has been undertaken, to the utmost safety needs of the installation; it is of key importance in relation to providing safe earthing around MV/HV switchgear and substations where there is a high potential of a hazard to people or equipment.  

Earth (or Ground) potential rise occurs when a large current flows to earth through an earth grid impedance. The potential relative to a distant point on the Earth is highest at the point where current enters ground or earth and declines with distance from the source. Find out more here.


Transient Stability

Transient stability analysis offers the assurance of reliability and continuous power to clients. It looks at the electrical systems’ response and stability after changes or disturbances from events such as faults or load changes as well as dynamic system behaviours such as motor starting, fault application, load application, load rejection and general behaviour. From these results we collate a timeline of multiple events, with the result shown graphically and on the single-line diagram.

Transient stability also analyses generator load acceptance, taking into consideration starting power factors and priority conditions. A secondary SPOF, (single point of failure) study reviews transient stability in relation to loss of plant, supply, cable, breaker or generator.  


Cable Sizing Optimisation

Selecting a cable size for both an LV and MV installation requires the designer to consider the circuit protection breaker and device for the circuit.  

As well as the method of installation, considerations also need to be made for load flow, the potential of overload, cable current carrying capacity, voltage drop, earth fault, short circuit withstand and mechanical protection.  

The optimisation of cable sizes requires a careful balance between preventing oversizing and the cables current carrying capacity, voltage drop and length. When this knowledge is applied, the results of this value engineering can yield around a 20% - 30% reduction in cable sizing, whilst achieving compliance with BS 6761.

We have carried out investigations in relation to hot cables while determining the condition of an old cable and its remaining life expectancy and suitability for re-use.


Thermal Imaging 

Electrical thermal imaging surveys are used to establish instances of overheating within an electrical installation. They detect where installations have live bars with incorrectly terminated cables, highlighting the presence of an undersized electrical installation. The results of the thermal imaging survey will reveal whether the installation requires repair, diversions or replacement to prevent faults or future loss of power.

Discovering overheating switchboards through thermal imaging will in turn, uncover contributing factors which will require investigation.

Occurrences of incorrectly tightened busbar bolts and terminations lead to overheating and potential short circuits; and undersized or de-rating of sub-mains cables lead to hot cables and hot areas of the electrical installation.

Our thermal imaging survey work ensures that the safety of the installation is of paramount importance whilst securing continuous power to the electrical system.

Medium Voltage Design

Our Medium Voltage designs, commonly consider the overall design of the network relating to 11kV power generation, 250mVA distribution switchgear, protection and relay selection and power/distribution transformers.  

As well as grading studies, KIPO consider the protection of overall site wide Medium Voltage (MV) schematics, earthing schematics, pre-construction installation drawings, schedules of plants, duct and underground trench sizing as well as Earthing Potential Rise considerations.  

We undertake in-depth designs relating to stage sequence planning for transferring from old Medium Voltage installations onto new switchgears. Learn more here.


We are frequently commissioned to undertake technical reviews for poorly designed or installed electrical systems.   Our approach is to be open minded to the quality of the design and installation whilst offering constructive resolutions and comments to assist project managers and clients.   KIPO are also requested to objectively fault find problems, with reports giving our methodology and approach when identifying solutions. Our services include:

  • Visual surveys of the M&E services at existing buildings
  • Technical reviews of third party designs
  • On-site witnessing of third party testing & commissioning
  • Latent/Patent defects reviews
  • British Standard compliance checks
Learn more here.

Contact our business development team for more details:

KIPO Ltd, Company Reg: 06285931, 10 Brockham Crescent, New Addington, Croydon, Surrey CRO OPP