Electrical selectivity, protection & discrimination studies

To ensure the safe and correct functioning of electrical system in the event of an electrical fault (short circuits and overloads), it is important to carry out a discrimination study for your electrical network.

Discrimination studies identify the electrical protection that is needed to achieve a continuous power supply and electrical discrimination. Although this prevents unwanted power loss, and unwanted breaker tripping, it is a key aspect of an electrical system design that is often overlooked which can result in costly repairs and downtime.

KIPO specialise in providing these studies and reports to achieve power systems discrimination that have been used by many companies including the Excel Energy Centre, the London Olympics Water Polo arena, various hospitals, hotels and data centres. 

Software used can include: -  Amtech, ERAC's, Etap, Manufactures Software and hand build software.

What KIPO provide 

  • BS EN 60909 short circuit calculations and Arc Flash

  • MV/LV protection, discrimination and selectivity calculations/reports

  • Transient stability calculations

  • Generator Sizing Notes

  • Earthing Reports

  • Cable sizing value engineering

  • Power quality studies/survey

  • EMC/EMF studies

  • Earthing Studies 

  • SPoF and Reliability Studies

Time Current Curves 


Electrical Grading & Protection 

Electrical Discrimination & Selectivity Diagrams

Electrical Discrimination, Protection, Selectivity, Breaker Coordination, Relay Selection and Grading Studies

A discrimination study is like a health check on your electrical design or installation.  If continuous power is your goal, a discrimination study establishes to what degree your electrical design or installation is protected. It is common for us to encounter the incorrect selection of breakers or relays, with the consequences misunderstood and underestimated.  Without a coherent and accurate survey or study carried out, it should not be assumed the risks are automatically mitigated. In the age of continuous power demand, often the stone overlooked is the least understood whilst being of upmost importance.  

Short Circuit Schematics


Previous power systems studies and surveys 

  • Windsor House

  • Wellington Hospital

  • 48 Mega Watt Data Centre MV Study

  • Birmingham and Sandwell Hospital

  • Everest Data Centre

  • Drapers Gardens - Critical Systems Power 

  • Old Admiralty Building 

  • IBM Data Centre

  • West Burton Power-station 1.5GW - 23MW of LV distribution  

  • Lavaca bay 7x13.8MWe power generation facility

  • St Pancras Station - LV systems including UPS

  • Global Switch Data Centre - 50kV, 10kV and LV

  • Excel Energy Centre - Generators & CHP

  • London 2012 Olympics Water Polo arena and Basketball arena - UPS and power generation

  • Reading Data Centre

  • Birmingham New Street Station

  • Worthing Hospital - 11kV network

  • Homerton Hospital - LV system

  • Kings College Hospital - 11kV network

  • Sheraton Skyline Hotel

  • Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre

  • National Audit Office